Measuring Mastery Behaviors at Scale: The Persistence, Effort, Resilience and Challenge-Seeking Task (PERC)


  • Tenelle Porter
  • Diego Catalán Molina
  • Lisa Blackwell
  • Sylvia Roberts
  • Abigail Quirk
  • Angela Lee Duckworth
  • Kali Trzesniewski



performance tasks, persistence, effort, resilience, growth mindset, achievement


Mastery behaviours — seeking out challenging tasks and continuing to work on them despite difficulties — are integral to achievement but difficult to measure with precision. The current study reports on the development and validation of the computer-based persistence, effort, resilience, and challenge-seeking (PERC) task in two demographically diverse samples of adolescents (total N = 3,188). We present evidence for convergent validity with self-reported mastery behaviours and learning mindsets, discriminant validity from theoretically unrelated constructs, and incremental predictive validity for grade point average (GPA). Results suggest that the PERC task may be a useful tool for assessing mastery behaviours at scale.


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How to Cite

Porter, T., Catalán Molina, D., Blackwell, L. ., Roberts, S., Quirk, A., Lee Duckworth, A., & Trzesniewski, K. (2020). Measuring Mastery Behaviors at Scale: The Persistence, Effort, Resilience and Challenge-Seeking Task (PERC). Journal of Learning Analytics, 7(1), 5–18.



Special Section: Beyond Cognitive Ability: Enabling Assessment of 21C Skills